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Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin.

DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected.

Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly.

What is diabetic ketoacidosis?

DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness.

Symptoms of DKA

Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes.

Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include:

  • Vomiting
  • Dehydration
  • An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops
  • Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Coma

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia).

Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis

As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy.

This may happen for a number of reasons including:

  • Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l
  • Missing insulin injections
  • If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump
  • As a result of illness or infections
  • High or prolonged levels of stress
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Illegal drug use

DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.

Ketoacidosis can occasionally occur in pregnancy and this can be very dangerous for both the mother to be and the child.

Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis

In most cases, ketoacidosis in people with diabetes will be accompanied by high sugar levels. However, ketoacidosis can also occur at low or normal blood glucose levels. This is referred to as euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis and may occur if someone who is insulin dependent neither eats nor takes sufficient insulin for a prolonged period of time.

People on insulin pumps should be aware that euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis could occur during or following exercise if insulin delivery is suspended for too long. Healthcare professionals recommend that insulin delivery is not suspended for more than 1 hour.


Keep it simple guys!


Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius- and lots of courage -to move in opposite direction
– Albert Einstein

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There has always been a Misconception – Creating a Innovation, or  may be to bring about a Innovative change in current product, processes, systems or services requires Creative Imagination, and Creative Imagination requires creative brain.

Most of us will believe that Creative Brain is Genetic Inheritance or Endowment.Either you have it or not.Innovators have different  type of  Gray Matter and large number of Sulci and ridges which brings about the Creativity in them.As such others ,we the common are average from them. But the research really supports it? Many researches have proved it wrong.More than 3/4 of researches points that creativity are not simply genetic traits nor endowed,these actually they can be developed . Obviously,if not Genetic trait then how come they get their brains to “Think Different” – the same slogan of Apple Inc Commercial.What makes them to get those world changing ideas?

In one of the research which I came through – Research of The Innovator’s DNA, which they compared five hundred innovators to five thousand senior Executives led to identify Five Discovery Skills that Innovator possess. Questioning , Networking ,Observing , Experimenting and Associating . It helps innovators discover new directions, problems, or ideas. Innovative breakthrough usually happens at intersections of diverse disciplines and fields. All innovators from diverse fields of expertise come together to create new ideas . Or you can say that some times a innovator may possess extensive knowledge from diverse backgrounds ,even though not at all unrelated with in them. Put simply, innovative thinkers connects fields, ideas, problems that others unrelated..what we call as Forced Association.

I was reading this new book THE INNOVATORS DNA-Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators.

While reading, For the first time I came to know the meaning of -“INNOVATION”. If you search this great Word-INNOVATION in any dictionary or Wikipedia, You will typically find same definition –Innovation is the creation of better or more effective products, processes, services,technologies or ideas that are accepted by markets, Governments and society”.

Well I don’t think it really needs to be accepted by Markets, Government or any society.Does a hardcore Innovator bothers about its acceptance of his Innovative idea  in society? Take an example of Steve Jobs, Generation’s all time Greatest  innovator. Steve Jobs, in fact challenged the present acceptance of Society. He challenged the Status quo. Steve jobs once meditating was getting disturbed. He found the noise of the computer fan distracting, So Jobs questioned the need of the fan in personal computer. “Does it really needs the fan?” “Why does it really needs a fan?” Since computers need the fan to prevent it from overheating, no one from us bothered to question this. Obviously to remove fan from computer, you will need to get different type of power supply which generates less heat.

Challenging the present , Jobs found hard-core Rod Holt from Atari crowd, convinced him to replace it with new type of power supply and made Apple -II, the quietest and smallest personal computer.Closely Observing you might see, Jobs questioned the present product or process. He didn’t bother the acceptance of society. Innovators question, observe , experiment there Ideas. They have a dream to change the world , bringing new ideas , new products , processes to the world, without bothering what world will reply to his innovation . They have courage to do so. They are willing to embrace a mission for change and take risks to make change happen. In short , they are constantly increasing their ability to think and generate innovative ideas and execute them. By constantly, observing , questioning the status quo, present scenarios, they just focus on their cognitive mind, associate their diverse knowledge and discover the innovative ideas.

More to come on next Blog – dedicated to Innovation

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Happy Blogging….